Alexander Mackenzie Reaches the Pacific Ocean

One of Canada’s most historically significant explorers, the Scottish born Sir Alexander Mackenzie, reached the Pacific Ocean (and the end of his groundbreaking trip across the country) on July 20, 1793 although he himself commemorated it two days later, on the 22nd.

Alexander Mackenzie

Alexander Mackenzie

His travels across the country were actually divided into two separate expeditions; the first one, in 1789, was a river expedition to the Arctic Ocean although this wasn’t the direction he had actually meant to travel (sounds a bit like my sense of direction…).  From a colleague in Montreal, he had learned that the First Nations people understood how the local rivers flowed to the northwest and, acting on this information, he set out on what was then known as the Dehcho (now the Mackenzie) River by canoe in the hope of finding the northwest passage to the Pacific Ocean.  Instead, he ended up traveling in the opposite direction and ended up at the Atlantic Ocean on July 14, 1789.

In Mackenzie’s mind this was a massive disappointment (he even initially named the river that would become the Mackenzie, ‘Disappointment River’) and, as a result of this set back, he returned to Great Britain in 1791 to study up on the new advances in longitude before returning to Canada in 1792.

1792-1793 marked the years of his second, more successful, expedition and the one which played a significant role in the history of British Columbia.  Accompanied by two native guides, his cousin, six Canadian voyagers, and a dog, Mackenzie set out from Fort Chipewyan on the 10th of October 1792 and set out along the Pine River the flow of which eventually lead to the Peace River.  After building and wintering at what is now known as Fort Fork, the company set out to continue along the length of the Peace River on March 9, 1793 before finally reaching the upper region of the Fraser River.

The Route of Alexander Mackenzie and company.

The Route of Alexander Mackenzie and company.

Having been told by the first nations people in the area, that the Fraser Canyon was un-navigational and populated by tribes who had a history of being unfriendly to outsiders, Mackenzie and his companions elected instead to ascend the West Road River, cross over the Coast Mountains, and descend the Bella Coola River towards the sea.  On July 20, 1793; he reached Bella Coola and became the first recorded person to complete a transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico and, by only a matter of 48 days, missed meeting George Vancouver there.  His initial plan had been to continue westward with the intent to reach the open ocean of the Pacific but was stopped from obtaining this goal by the Heiltsuk peoples and, so, had to be content with writing a message on a rock near the water’s edge of the Dean Channel instead.

Alexander Mackenzie's Message

Alexander Mackenzie’s Message

At a later point in time, these words were permanently inscribed by surveyors and the rock itself, as well as the area around it, are now part of the Sir Alexander Mackenzie Provincial Park. Even though Mackenzie did not achieve his goal of reaching the open waters of the ocean, he still became the first individual to traverse the span of the country over land as well as the first to navigate so many of the inland waterways which cover the face of Canada.  Possibly, the part of his journey that had the most long-term impact though, was that it showed the European explorers who had crossed the Atlantic Ocean and landed on the eastern coast of the new world that  it was possible to cross the expanse of this country and played a huge role in opening up the western regions of Canada to these colonizing forces.

The Legacy of Sir Alexander Mackenzie.

The Legacy of Sir Alexander Mackenzie.

 

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B.C. History Pt. 2/4 – European Exploration of the Pacific Northwest Coast

As mentioned in last Tuesday’s post British Columbia’s history can be divided into four general sections; the time before the arrival of Europeans, the period of European exploration, British Columbia’s time as a British colony, and the development of Canada as an independent country.  In one of this blog’s initial posts, I discussed how the initial reason for European exploration around North America was a search for trade routes to the orient and the central reason for settlement was based around industry and trade purposes (at first fur otter pelts; later wood and gold).

During the height of European exploration, the predominant colonizing powers were the Spanish, the Portuguese, and the British.  However, due to the treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, as well as the papal bull of 1493, the Portuguese were forced to relinquish any claim to the Pacific Northwest coast. But, rather than leaving the Pacific Northwest entirely to the Spanish and the British, this third party was replaced by the Russians who actually arrived in this region first.

Russia

A Danish-born sea captain, Vitus Bering, was sent by Tsar Peter the Great to head two naval expeditions to North America in 1728 and 1740.  The first exploration was sent with the purpose of establishing whether Russia was linked to the North American land mass leading to the discovery of the Bering Strait (named after Vitus himself).

A satellite image of the Bering Strait.

A satellite image of the Bering Strait.

However, it was the second trip on 1740 that had the largest impact on the history of British Columbia as this expedition was focused on looking into trade and settlement opportunities in the new world.  However, the ship ran aground on an island off the coast of Alaska where the crew was forced to live out the winter.  Unfortunately, Vitus Bering was unable to survive this experience but the surviving members of the crew managed to hold out for the duration by living off sea otters, the pelts of which they took back to Russia in the spring.  These pelts proved to be incredibly popular with wealthy Russians and Chinese, and these coveted furs ended up leading to the establishment of the Russian fur trade. In order to maintain a monopoly on this trade, they tried to keep the source of these fur a secret from other colonizing powers but Spain was already colonizing the southern Pacific coast (with a predominant fort around what is now San Francisco) and were keen to claim as much of the coast as possible.

Vitus Bering showing off his spectacular wig.

Vitus Bering showing off his spectacular wig.

Spain

From their southern settlements around San Francisco, the Spanish launched three expeditions in 1774, 1775, and 1779 up the coast to the area that is now British Columbia.  While all three of these expeditions got the Spanish colonizers into the region, it was the 1774 expedition that was the most significant as it was during this period that first contact was made with the First Nations people when an interaction was established with the Haida people on Haida Gwaii.

Skidgate, in Haida Gwaii

Skidgate, in Haida Gwaii

Britain

The first arrival by the British was in 1778 during James Cook’s third voyage when the British were attempting to discover and control the Northwest Passage.  During this voyage, they arrived in Nootka Sound and traded with the Nuu-chahp-nulth first nation for otter pelts which they were then able to trade for an enormous profit in Macau on their voyage back to Britain.  The discovery of the price that could be obtained for these otter pelts lead to an influx of traders arriving to the B.C. Coast and the establishment of ongoing economic contact with the aboriginal peoples of the area.

Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound

Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound

As discussed in the Esteban Martinez post last week, there was a great deal of conflict between Spain and Britain over claims to the coast of the Pacific Northwest and, although Spain had the earlier advantage, Britain wanted it more and that is how British Columbia became a British colony rather than a part of Spain.  But that will be discussed in more depth in next Tuesday’s post; part 3/4: the establishment of B.C. as a British colony.

 

Why it Took so Long for European Explorers to Reach B.C.

While the Pacific Northwest Coast was one of the first regions inhabited by our earlier human ancestors, it was one of the last to be reached and settled by later European arrivals.  This occurred predominantly due to the fact that the earliest humans in North America arrived from the west across the Pacific ocean and then followed the receding ice sheets of the last major ice age while the later European arrivals came across the Atlantic, landing on the east coast before travelling west over the continent.

The ice free corridor via: www.gambassa.com

The ice free corridor via:
http://www.gambassa.com

While Canada is clearly a rather large country which would take some time to cross, it still took there early explorers longer than one would expect to reach the west coast.  There are several potential explanations for this:

  1. Geography – the most western part of the country is separated from the rest by a range of quite intimidating mountains (even by today’s standards).  This is a large part of the reason why B.C. has a lot less snow than the rest of the country (sorry!)

    I, for one, would not want to cross these on foot. The Rocky Mountains courtesy of: waz.m.derwesten.de

    I, for one, would not want to cross these on foot. The Rocky Mountains courtesy of: waz.m.derwesten.de

  2. Expectations – the initial reason for sending explorers from Europe, across the Atlantic Ocean towards the west, was to look for an alternate route to India and the Middle East.  Even without access to the internet and modern travel guides, I think it was probably evident to them very early on that that wasn’t where they had landed.  Which leads to….
  3. Resources – the desire to reach the Orient and Middle East was based predominantly on a desire for the spices, cloth, metals and other resources that these countries offered.  North America, on the other hand, had a lot of trees, water, and land which, while highly valued today, was not all that impressive to these travelers and probably resulted in a reduced interest in further exploration.

This third reason of resources is connected to the reason why, what is now, British Columbia was finally explored and populated.  It turned out to have attributes which made it desirable to Europeans.  The first of these was fur pelts, specifically otter which (for obvious reasons) isn’t typically found inland and, later on, it was the gold rush of the 1800’s which drew people to the area.  Without these two discoveries, the history of this pacific region would have been very different.